Occurring changes in RK force to look anew at all parts of a life in our society, to analyze the saved up experience critically, to join actively in reorganization. Among the most actual problems – training and education of the youth in the system of vocational training .
In turn, new conditions of development of Kazakhstan’s society put a new priorities and problems before the system of vocational training. As prime the problem of formation of qualitatively new level of preparation of the experts possessing by key and professional competence, by own style of thinking and the original approach to the decision of the put tasks.
In this connection the pressing question in the concept of RK state policy is the perfection of the maintenance of higher education in credit system of training.
However essential transition of higher education to credit system of training has caused the changes in traditional methodical system of training in high school. It has involved scientific interest of many researchers to the formation of cognitive interests and needs, motivations of self-education, to its substantial components: student's, pedagogical, technological and so on, i.e. to formation of science centres on studying the problems of self-education.
In turn, it is possible to draw a following conclusion of that the professional competence is the major new growth of the students personality, promoting the formation of his self-educational activity.
Distinction between concepts competence and the competence is emphasized in M.V. Argunova’s work: the competence is the set of the interconnected qualities of the person (knowledge, ability, skills, ways of activity), subjects concerning a certain circle and processes and necessary for the qualitative productive activity in relation to them. Competence – possession, holding by the person the corresponding competence, including his personal attitude to it and to the subject activity.
In M.M. Shalashova’s work competence is the integrated quality of the person describing readiness to solve the problem, arising during the life and professional work, with using of knowledge, experience, individual abilities.
Formation of professional competence is considered widely in the scientific literature.
For example, by A.K. Markova’s definition «professional competence is all subjective qualities shown in activity and providing its efficiency» .
As is known, professional competence is a result, both development of self-education and formation of key competence, i.e. process of effective development of students’ self-education is possible through formation of key competence.
The term « key competence » (key skills) specifies the competence that they are «key», the basis for others, more concrete and focused in detail. Possession by them allows the person to be successful in any sphere of professional and public work, including a private life.
For the formation of key competence it is important also to allocate them from the set of other results of education.
Unlike knowledge – the information appropriated by the person, – competence exists in the form of activity (real or intellectual).
Unlike skill – the readiness to practical and theoretical activity on the basis of mastering knowledge, competence is transferable, improved through the comprehension of the general basis of activity.
Unlike skill – the actions which are carried out automatically, – competence is connected with the comprehension of activity.
So, for example, in the European project « Definition and selection of key competence » on the basis of practical generalization of authoritative opinions the following structure of key competence is received, presented in table 1.
Key competence for a successful life and society effective functioning
Critical thinking and integrated
To operate independently:
– ability to protect and defend the rights, interests, duties, needs;
– ability to build and execute vital plans and projects;
– ability to operate inside of a wide context.
Use tools interactively:
– ability to use the language interactively, symbols and texts;
– ability to use knowledge and information;
– ability to use (new) technologies.
To function in socially non-uniform groups:
– ability to build mutual relation with others;
– ability to cooperation;
– ability to resolve conflicts.
In M.M. Shalashova’s work the concept of key competence also reveals its classification on educational-cognitive, civil-political, information, communicative and social-labor competence.
To educational-cognitive enter the competence of the pupil in the sphere of cognitive activity. Knowledge and skill of organization, planning of ideas, the analysis, a reflection and a self-estimation of activity, mental abilities to an independent purchase of a new knowledge, vital installations and readiness for the further self-education.
Civil-political competence are connected with a valuable reference points of the schoolboy, his ability to express the civil stand, to realize the role and applicability in the society, skill to choose purposes for the acts.
Information and communicative competence assumes ability and readiness to select the necessary information, transform, keep and transfer it. Shaped communicative competence provides possession of necessary languages, ways of interaction with the associates, collective work skills.
Socio-labor competence means the application of knowledge and experience in the sphere of public attitudes, in questions of economy, right, in the field of professional self-determination.
N.A. Zagranichnaya, R.G. Ivanov as key competence which have the greatest value for the successful human life in a society allocate the following: competence of the problems decision, communicative and information competence. In authors’ opinion, competence in the problems decision includes:
- knowledge of problems (problems of cognition, modelling and practical transformation of the validity), the reasons of their occurrence, intensity, scales, etc;
- knowledge of the problems decision ways and their possession;
- experience of the problems decision (sensation of pleasure from success and afflictions of failure during the decision of problems, an emotional estimation of a problem situation, satisfaction from performance of activity in the past);
- readiness for the decision of problems (presence of emotional stimulus, mobilization of energy, persistence, purposefulness, confidence of ability to overcome difficulty, comprehension of value of the variants variety, ways, ways of the purpose achievement).
It means, that the student in sphere of vocational training should possess a following set of key competence:
- readiness to make the realized and responsible choice – means an ability to analyze a situation, to define the priorities, to lay down the aims and to correlate them with aspirations of other people, to plan result of the activity and to develop algorithm of its achievement, to estimate results of the activity in a context of an existing situation and to correlate them with the vital plans;
- technological competence – means ability to understand, appropriate and realize the instruction, the description of technology, algorithm of activity, and its installation, not allowing to break technology of activity;
- information competence – means an ability of the graduate to interpret, systematize, critically estimate and analyze the received information, to do the given reason conclusions, to use the received information at planning and realizations of the activity, to structure an available information, to represent it in various forms and on various carriers;
- social competence – means, that the person is capable to correlate the aspirations to interests of other people and social groups, to use resources of other people and social institutes for the decision of the problem; productively cooperate with the members of the group (command) solving the general problem; to analyze and resolve the contradictions interfering an overall performance of a command;
- communicative competence – means readiness to put and reach the purposes of the oral and written communications;
- readiness for the self-education – means, that the student, sets a new problem for himself, is capable to reveal the blanks in his knowledge and skills, to formulate inquiry about the information, to estimate the necessity of this or that information for the activity, to carry out information search with the use of various means, to take the information from sources of the different kinds presented on the various carriers .
Thus, the key competence of students is an integrative system of knowledge, skills, habits, formed during the methodical decision of various educational problems and necessary for the social and professional adaptation of the future expert.
This problem faces to the higher schools of Kazakhstan, i.e. correct formation of self-improvement understanding of the future experts in the modern society.