In connection with reforms of practical health care of the Republic of Uzbekistan in professional medical education appeared the necessity in preparation of doctors specialists of high quality not only hospitals but also in primary link of the health care (family polyclinics, rural medical stations). Have been increased the role of the outpatient link of doctors with corresponding training, supposing the skills of independently receiving responsible decisions and offering-qualitative professional aid. This means necessity into passage from supporting education, oriented to readiness of the future specialist to activate in typical situations to alternative, providing its behavior in uncertain situations [2; 3].
During decennials higher medical educational establishments were oriented only to quantitative criteria to graduate specialist doctors as much as possible. Thus theory and practice of education in training process were subjected to this main task. Principles of modern medicine supposed providing medical service not only when the baby is ill and directs to the doctor for help but when he is well and requires prophylactic measures, directed to protect its health. Therefore, traditionally operating education system in its present expression and generally accepted concept has not been perfected because, it teaches mainly to knowledge, when in high school it is necessary to learn to think on the basis of knowledge [1; 4].
Increasing of the quality of preparation of general practitioner doctors, its significance is high in supporting of the health, prolongation of life creative activity and increasing of populations’ able bodied. Thus, have been appeared urgent requests to form in future doctors such form of thinking, which gives possibility to students independently renew knowledge, skills and abilities, increase ones professional level, critical thinking and find out effective methods of solving clinical problems and tasks.
It is known, the aim of traditional training is: to give students as much as possible scope of knowledge. Teacher gives already comprehensive and differentiated by himself information, determines skills, which it is necessary by his point of view elaborate in student. The tasks of students are exactly and fully recall knowledge, made by others. Knowledge taken in the process of such studies is an encyclopedic character; represent determined volume of information by different clinical disciplines, which in the conscience of students there are in the view of thematic blocks, not always having sense connections. Then appears doubt about how well was the educational material, its use in situations, out of the context of theory, i.e.in practice. Majority of our colleagues remain as imperative pedagogues, do not work with their students only creative burn with and complications, with what face students, remains unknown. For them teacher is only as a controller, and they are correct or incorrect solved tasks [2; 5].
All these shortage may be improved with the implementation into teacher’s methodic arsenal new pedagogic and information technologies, the newest teaching methods and non-ordinary methods. We offer widely use new versions of interactive teaching models and their combination to improve the quality of the preparation of future doctors in clinical stage of medical education.
Interactive teaching of knowledge represents determined contradictory information and features of this information are that the student gets it as a non ready system from the teacher, but in the process of personal activity. Teachers’ tasks are making situations where student is active, where he asks and activates.
The aim of interactive education is making conditions by teacher, where the students open themselves, got and construct knowledge. This is the principal difference of aims to active education from the traditional education system. It is necessary to note that methods of interactive education allows to reach in the educational process often aims of high order, i.e. promotes the development of students’ professional competence. Now students of senior courses of medical institutions experience a difficulty in complex clinical examination of patients with the analysis of taken data and realization of differential diagnostics. Execution by students daily curatio of the patients in the condition of in-patient and polyclinics, according to work plan, not full measure conform to modern requirements of preparation of doctor, who must possess with the skills of structured examination of patient with correct determination and solution his problem, including carry out prophylactic measures and prophylactic medical examination.
For correction of the insufficiencies it is necessary:
- modernize and systematize stages of medical examination in the patient’s bed;
- determine concrete tasks and aims, activities made by students in patients examination, need both hospital and outpatient medical aid;
- make objective criteria of notes and control of students’ knowledge for made stages and levels of patient’s examination$
Modernized methods of education and control of students introduced into educational process in our department and proved its efficacy. Education from the teacher, tutor, and master is one of the important achievements of medical education.
Problem education is the system of means and methods of education, base of what is modeling of real creative process at the expense of making new knowledge, experience and practical skills where it occurs independently by students with the aid of teacher.
Tashkent Medical Academy, in «Demonstrated training module of Rural Medical Station»on the subject «Pediatrics» in the department of «Children diseases» of the treatment faculty conduct problem education on the theme: «Peculiarities of the course of acute rheumatic fever in children, diagnostics, differentiated diagnosis treatment and prophylactics. Tactics of GP peculiarities of the course of acute rheumatic fever in children. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinics, diagnostics, differentiated diagnosis treatment and prophylactics. Tactics of GP».
The aim of problem education: Teach students to correct logical and clinical thinking, form questions, improve the knowledge, experience and practical skills instudying problem.
For this it is necessary the existence of two factors:
- аppearance of cognitive need, which is in determined educational program;
- аcquiring new knowledge, necessary for fulfillment of number of tasks and skills.
The system of problem education this are informative and training stages of education, including revision of activities, as well as control for successful realization. Differ three forms of problem education:
1. Problem statement when the teacher himself puts the problem and solves it.
2. Co-education, where the teacher puts the problem and decision will be achieved in collaboration with students.
3. Creative teaching, where the students form the problem and find out its decision.
Necessary resources and materials for education:
- Auditory or demonstrative training module of RDS;
- multimedia, projector;
- blackboard or flipchart;
- markers, felt-pen;
- transparent papers and hands for them;
- hand outs;
- wax figures for demonstration of practical skills, medical equipment;
- thematic patients.
For example to problem education on the theme: «Acute rheumatic fever» student will show the following knowledge, experience and practical skills depending from advanced clinical situation:
- collection of complaints, anamnesis by diseases, bringing to the appearance of pains in the joints;
- examination of the patient with the pain in joints;
- differential diagnostics of the pain in joints;
- interpretation of laboratory analysis;
- treatment, prophylactics of the given disease.
Problem education finishes with statement of the «Children disease» department’s professor. Each student must remember, that during the demonstration of problem education happens: understanding, but not listing the set of facts and education on concrete real situation.